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<avr/sfr_defs.h> file is included by all of the
<avr/ioXXXX.h> files, which use macros defined here to make the special function register definitions look like C variables or simple constants, depending on the
_SFR_ASM_COMPAT define. Some examples from
<avr/iocanxx.h> to show how to define such macros:
#define PORTA _SFR_IO8(0x02) #define EEAR _SFR_IO16(0x21) #define UDR0 _SFR_MEM8(0xC6) #define TCNT3 _SFR_MEM16(0x94) #define CANIDT _SFR_MEM32(0xF0)
_SFR_ASM_COMPAT is not defined, C programs can use names like
PORTA directly in C expressions (also on the left side of assignment operators) and GCC will do the right thing (use short I/O instructions if possible). The
__SFR_OFFSET definition is not used in any way in this case.
_SFR_ASM_COMPAT as 1 to make these names work as simple constants (addresses of the I/O registers). This is necessary when included in preprocessed assembler (*.S) source files, so it is done automatically if
__ASSEMBLER__ is defined. By default, all addresses are defined as if they were memory addresses (used in
lds/sts instructions). To use these addresses in
in/out instructions, you must subtract 0x20 from them.
For more backwards compatibility, insert the following at the start of your old assembler source file:
#define __SFR_OFFSET 0
This automatically subtracts 0x20 from I/O space addresses, but it's a hack, so it is recommended to change your source: wrap such addresses in macros defined here, as shown below. After this is done, the
__SFR_OFFSET definition is no longer necessary and can be removed.
Real example - this code could be used in a boot loader that is portable between devices with
SPMCR at different addresses.
<avr/iom163.h>: #define SPMCR _SFR_IO8(0x37) <avr/iom128.h>: #define SPMCR _SFR_MEM8(0x68)
#if _SFR_IO_REG_P(SPMCR) out _SFR_IO_ADDR(SPMCR), r24 #else sts _SFR_MEM_ADDR(SPMCR), r24 #endif
You can use the
in/out/cbi/sbi/sbic/sbis instructions, without the
_SFR_IO_REG_P test, if you know that the register is in the I/O space (as with
SREG, for example). If it isn't, the assembler will complain (I/O address out of range 0...0x3f), so this should be fairly safe.
If you do not define
__SFR_OFFSET (so it will be 0x20 by default), all special register addresses are defined as memory addresses (so
SREG is 0x5f), and (if code size and speed are not important, and you don't like the ugly #if above) you can always use lds/sts to access them. But, this will not work if
__SFR_OFFSET != 0x20, so use a different macro (defined only if
__SFR_OFFSET == 0x20) for safety:
sts _SFR_ADDR(SPMCR), r24
In C programs, all 3 combinations of
__SFR_OFFSET are supported - the
_SFR_ADDR(SPMCR) macro can be used to get the address of the
SPMCR register (0x57 or 0x68 depending on device).